Shanghai Street. Photo by Henry Nee
This article by Harry den Hartog originally appeared at Sixth Tone.
One of the first things that struck me when I came to Shanghai was the wide variety of lifestyles on every corner. Farmers just off the train from the countryside sat on sacks of rice beside elegant office ladies chatting away on cell phones. It reminded me of New York City: a melting pot where people from every section of society are thrown together each day.
Shanghai is both a futuristic and a traditional city. It is international and urban, but also retains many rustic elements, as evidenced in the daily lives and habits of many of its citizens. This creates an attractive mix of lifestyles and cultures, which I think is good for a city. Although the chaos and conflicts that sometimes ensue when this happens can be annoying, it also gives a place character and reminds us of our roots.
Urbanization normally refers to the movement of rural populations toward a city. But Shanghai and other Chinese cities serve as evidence that urbanization is often much more complicated. In essence, it’s about change of lifestyle. The divide between rural and urban is more obvious in China than it is in any Western country.
I grew up in the Dutch countryside. My grandparents used to be farmers. Peeking out from my upstairs bedroom window I could see the glimmering, seductive lights of Rotterdam — home to Europe’s largest port.
Although life in the countryside was peaceful, pleasant, and safe, the city always attracted me with its unlimited potential. It seemed to me the best way to meet interesting new people, gain new ideas, and learn more about the world.
I thought the village where my family lived was dull and dreamed of escaping at the first possible opportunity. Moving to Rotterdam for my university studies only expanded this desire. I yearned for a megalopolis. I needed a New York City, a Paris, or a Shanghai.
The city offered me a means of developing myself, my career, and allowed me to meet new people and face new challenges — ambitions shared by many young people across the world. This holds true in China as well, although because of living standard disparities between rural and urban regions, many people also migrate simply to improve their quality of life.
Rising inequalities between cities and their surrounding countrysides result in an unfair system where one set of citizens lives much better than their neighbors. In China this situation is exacerbated by thehukou, a system that ties people to where their household is registered.
China has a rich and long agricultural history. But although China’s agricultural methods have often been much more advanced than other countries throughout history, many Chinese nowadays view rural areas as backward and unappealing.
Personally, I love the countryside. However glamorous the Shanghai life can be, I often long to return to my small Dutch village. I strongly believe that rural and urban areas are becoming increasingly polarized, and I think that metropolises need to search for a way to become more balanced with the countryside. One way to do this is to incorporate more rural elements into city life.
In 2012, the environmental protection organization GoodtoChina launched SkyFarms: a project that installs rooftop gardens where crops are grown around Shanghai. In 2015, a farmer named Fred Young initiated the Rainbow of Hope project, which delivers organic food grown by rural farmers directly to urban dwellers.
The target consumer for these two projects is Shanghai’s rising middle class — a group that rarely has any contact with farmers. This lack of connection is why I really enjoy seeing people from the countryside next to polished white-collar workers.
What has always fascinated me most about Shanghai is its mix of rural and urban lifestyles. Unlike New York, Berlin, or Tokyo, each street in Shanghai offers fresh food that was brought in from a nearby field that morning.
This gives a lot of variety to this city — something that supposedly more “civilized” cities like Paris or London are lacking. China should embrace the rural-urban qualities of its cities, and continue to develop them into a permanent feature of urban life.
Harry den Hartog is an independent urban designer and author of ‘Shanghai New Towns: Searching for Community and Identity in a Sprawling Metropolis.’
Conceptual Rendering of the Hong Kong “HarbourLoop” Proposal by Lead 8. Image Courtesy of Lead 8 Hong Kong Limited.
From Norway’s cross-country bicycle highway to Copenhagen’s cycling snake, large-scale cycling infrastructure projects around the world are attracting both public and private investments. With Amsterdam appointing its first Bike Mayor and London having cycling as a prominent issue during its mayoral election, pro-cycling campaigns are seizing the moment to normalize cycling as a way of daily transit.
Primarily known for its efficient public transportation system, Hong Kong has not actively explored the potential of cycling on a municipal level. Yet could Hong Kong benefit from getting more people on their bicycles? Would the right infrastructure and pro-cycling campaign create a passion for ground-level, zero-emission transportation?
The city does have a few legitimate excuses for not embracing cycling wholeheartedly: hilly terrain, humid tropical weather, and crowded streets. Yet, with the right infrastructure and political will Hong Kong does have the potential to become a cycling-friendly city.
95% of Hong Kong’s population live on 20% of Hong Kong’s land, the rest 80% remains undeveloped due to its extremely hilly topography. However, a booming city has developed on the flat terrain. According to a study by Lead-8, a multidisciplinary design studio, 1.7 million residents live within a ten minute walk of the harbour front. Since its population is densely concentrated on flat terrain, a small amount of investment in infrastructure that connects active areas could move a large amount of population around the city.
Apart from its hilly terrain, Hong Kong has hot, humid, and long summers. Almost 90% humidity in the summer months makes any outdoor activities less desirable. However, shaded and comfortable urban biking infrastructure could help cyclists enjoy their rides even in the hot summer. Moreover, many workplaces are encouraged to have showers and changing rooms to accommodate cyclists. The newly updated LEED Green Building Guidelines, in addition to bike storage, credits buildings that locate near a cycling network and provide shower facilities for occupants. Weather is never perfect for cycling, but practical solutions are available to make cycling easy and comfortable in Hong Kong’s climate.
How about Safety? The already crowded streets put cycling safety in question. Mostly designed for narrow single or double-lane traffic, the streets are barely wide enough for cars to circulate. However, crowded streets are exactly the reason why Hong Kong should do more to promote cycling. Moving cars around is less space-efficient than moving bikes around. If less street space is dedicated to car traffic, more people could benefit from using safer, and better-connected cycling or pedestrian streets. Tokyo too has crowded streets shared by pedestrians / cars / and bicycles, but it does not stop 85% of its population from owning and riding bikes. A well-connected network in a road-sharing environment will largely off-set the obstacles.
In Hong Kong, only 6.6% of the population travels daily from home to work in private vehicles, and nearly 2/3rds of the population travel by mass transit. Hong Kong is already an efficeint city with regards to transportation, so what added value can cycling and bring? The goal of promoting cycling is not to compete with available mass transit. The real benefit is to provide more options for sustainable and efficient modes of transit. When options are available, people will always choose the best way to get around – the fastest and cheapest way.
Ian Ralph, urban designer at Lead-8, told us, “Hong Kong’s urban planning currently favors longer trips using buses and the MTR. For many journeys under 4km, using a ground-level, well-connected cycling / walking path network would be faster, cheaper and more enjoyable.”
As many excuses as the city for not embracing cycling, the discussion of promoting biking should not be hindered, since it is never easy for any city to adopt an efficient and well-used cycling network. A Hong Kong-based multidisciplinary architecture and design studio, Lead-8, proposed a 23-km urban pathway network – HarbourLoop. This visionary plan presents a biking/walking/running mobility network that connects currently segmented harbourfront footpaths.
While this proposal is grand and ambitious, Hong Kong will have to start somewhere feasible if it is serious about introducing bike-friendly infrastructure. But there are plenty of potential starting points. Hong Kong is not as far from being a cycling-friendly city as we think.
Mei Tung Estate – Photograph by Can Pac Swire via Creative Commons
Hong Kong’s shortage of affordable housing is becoming an increasingly pressing issue – over 30% of the population is currently living in subsidized housing, and the number of people waiting to enroll in the public housing program is growing each day. Because the Government program is so competitive, many residents are forced to live in divided units, cage homes, or rooftop settlements. Increasing rent pressure, inflation, and undesirable living conditions make homelessness the only option for many.
Hong Kong is a rich city, but wealth is extremely unevenly distributed. According to a study on 28 Asia-Pacific cities, Hong Kong ranked the lowest on its Gini Index – a measurement of income distribution. While the rich enjoy luxury condos with elevated swimming pools, the poor, which makes up about 20% of the population (a total of ~1.4 million people), struggle with ever-increasing housing prices.
“One in three of Hong Kong’s population, over 2 million people, rely on subsidized housing. Waiting time is on average 4 years. Almost half of the population in poverty are working poor.” These are just some of the alarming statistics published by Hong Kong Housing Authority. Although the Housing Authority operates 740,000 flats in 172 Public Rental Housing (PRH) estates, the high demand for affordable housing is not close to being met. As of December 2015, there are nearly 300,000 applicants waiting for an affordable place to live in, and the number is only going up.
As a result, people who cannot wait are forced out onto the streets.
Although homelessness is commonly associated with unemployment, there is a large group of people are in the labor force also suffer from the effects of poverty. In Hong Kong, this “working poor” group accounts for more than half of the population in poverty. In numbers, that is about 700,000 people from working families who cannot provide themselves with basic living needs.
The picture is clear: Hong Kong is expensive, and housing is a huge expense for most people. Price-To-Income (a basic measurement for housing affordability) in Hong Kong is almost double that of New York City (35.8 in HK; 19.5 in NYC). What can low-income residents do? Some have the patience to wait in extremely inhumane living arrangements until the day a public housing spot opens up: some build shelters on others’ roofs, and some spend their nights at McDonald’s as McRefugees. Most of them live “creatively” day-to-day, because they have no other choice.
How can Hong Kong provide sufficient housing for everyone?
Although the Housing Authority promises to build more subsidized housing, the current lack of supply calls for swifter action.
The problem boils down to supply vs. demand in the number of affordable units. There is simply not enough supply of affordable housing in Hong Kong. When housing is scarce, it becomes unaffordable. Market-rate developers have the upper hand in this game. If the market allows them to build high-end housing and charge the highest rent they can get, they will.
With this in mind, government should look at ways to engage these private developers in delivering affordable and mixed-income units. Given the lucrative high-end real estate market, this might seem like an empty promise. However, effective incentives for mixed-income units will work, and it is proven to be cheaper and faster than relying on public estates to be built by the government. For example, the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) in the U.S. has accounted for 90% of the country’s affordable housing by incentivizing private investors/developers to build low income units.
In addition to providing incentives for low-income housing, encouraging the revitalization of underutilized properties in the city could also help increase land use efficiency, which will eventually drive down housing prices.
There are many vacant industrial buildings in Hong Kong. However, the opportunities to re-purpose these spaces are limited due to zoning restrictions. Most of these parcels are zoned as Unspecified Use Area, which is ironically the government’s scheme to make land-use more flexible. In reality, such a flexibility clause does not make conversion of underutilized properties easy. In fact the complex application procedures and high waiver fees associated with building use conversion make it more appealing for landowners to demolish the old buildings and build anew on these parcels.
As a result, most developers choose to build premium estates to target the more profitable markets. If these rules are relaxed and processes reduced, more underutilized properties could be re-furbished and re-purposed to add to the supply of affordable living spaces.
Instead of solely counting on the Housing Authority to realize affordable housing construction in its the pipeline, we could leverage other approaches to relieve Hong Kong’s housing pressure. While the under-served get creative with their living arrangements, the government should also get creative in solving this housing crisis in a timely manner.
Existing & Proposed MTR Stations, map by Wikimedia
Wong Chuk Hang, one of the most hip “undiscovered” neighborhoods in Hong Kong, is undergoing massive redevelopment thanks to a planned MTR Station. Just as galleries, artist studios, hidden coffee shops, and restaurants started emerging in recent years, the community is now facing rising rents and redevelopment pressures. Will WCH become another transient alternative neighborhood that will soon be overtaken by big developers?
Historically, WCH was zoned strictly for industrial activities. As industrial activities began to die in the early 1970s, many old warehouses were left vacant. Over the past decade, small businesses, especially from the creative community, relocated to Wong Chuk Hang as rents soared in central Hong Kong locations. Slowly, Wong Chuk Hang has become a hybrid neighborhood that houses activities ranging from food processing to artist studios and rock-climbing gyms.
Recent redevelopment in this neighborhood has induced a twofold increase in rent. New ground-up developments coming to the neighborhood are a response to the shortage of office space in Hong Kong and the high rent potential in WCH.
The Factory, 1 Yip Fat Street, Wong Chuk Hang, photo by Ziyou Tian
Is the new development pushing out the emerging creative community and small businesses in WCH? Not entirely, but it most likely will eventually.
Co-ownership is a common practice in Hong Kong, and many of the industrial buildings are occupied by owners rather than renters. The first round of redevelopment targeted single ownership buildings, which were mostly left in bad condition and were barely occupied.
In multi-tenant ownership situations, it is much harder to reach an agreement to sell the building for redevelopment. Currently in WCH, a new office building charges on average 20HKD/sq ft whereas the old building could only generate around 9 HKD/sq ft. No matter how much individual owners want to preserve the original community, the rent gap is becoming too appealing for anyone to refuse to negotiate.
This new development will seriously challenge WCH’s buzzing scene and its vision of becoming the new destination for modern art in Hong Kong. Often, artists are both blamed as gentrifiers and sympathized with as the victims of gentrification. However, in Wong Chuk Hang, this is not the case: the uplift of the neighborhood is mostly transit-driven and the existing settlements will not be forced to relocate, especially if they owned the properties.
Inevitably, the creative community will suffer from the lack of room for growth. Currently, art lovers and culture seekers enjoy getting out of their industrial lifts and discovering the hidden art scenes in WCH. As old industrial buildings are replaced by shinier, trendier, and more well-maintained office towers, affordable and flexible space will be less available for the grassroots alternative community to grow.
“Life will get easier, but Wong Chuk Hang will become another boring neighborhood at the same time”, says the head of the South Island Cultural District and the owner of Art Statements, Dominique Perregaux.
If the rent is already doomed to be too damn high, would the public space improve as part of the neighborhood redevelopment?
New buildings in WCH are shiny and well-maintained by building management companies. However, little has been done outside the boundaries of these new building. Although the MTR station and the new offices that come with it will increase foot-traffic, streets and connectors still remain at a monstrous industrial scale. Crossing streets requires endless detours under the elevated highway. Public space is almost non-existent, and is only hidden under shabby overpasses. While private developers polish their own properties, other desired features of a neighborhood do not seem to make their appearance simultaneously. If the rising rent is not to be controlled, at least government should demand developers to contribute to the public space.
What is the future for WCH? How much longer can this neighborhood remain a cool, hip gem?
As displacement is not so much of an immediate threat to owner-occupied spaces, the existing community may not be forced to relocate in the near term. However, new space available for rent would target a very homogenous group of users — office occupiers who could afford paying high rent. The development-driven transformation in this neighborhood poses a question as to how to sustain or further foster a diverse mix of activities. We need to ask these questions or Wong Chuk Hang, the “hidden gem” of Hong Kong, will soon just become another uninspiring office compound.
Photo by Thomas Depenbusch / Photo edited by Author via CC BY
China is known for having a strong central government. In many ways, this perception is very true. Unlike countries like the United States which clearly delineate federal and local (state) powers, all governmental authority in China flows from the central government. Over the past several decades, however, the central government has gradually delegated power down to local governments. Local governments now have significant decision-making authority when developing policies.
Though decentralization has spurred economic growth, it has also brought challenges. In particular, there has been a rise in local protectionism, with local government officials focusing on growth in their own municipalities at the expense of surrounding areas.
The Chinese government increasingly needs to balance the priorities of central and local governments. Furthermore, many problems, including environmental protection, are just handled better on a regional rather than city level. As such, there has been significant growth in the rise of regional plans over the past decade.
Benefits of Regional Plans
When developing regional plans, policymakers look at existing and projected resources within a region (including people, natural resources, infrastructure, and industries) and analyze the opportunities and challenges that will shape the region’s growth in the future. Both regional and local leaders use this information to develop policies that limit redundancies, encourage cooperation, and maximize the potential of regions. Regional governments can both help create these regional plans by bringing nearby city officials together and can, in theory, help implement these plans.
Regional planning can prevent a “race to the bottom.” For example, if one city implements environmental protection measures that increases the cost of development, neighboring cities may view this as an opportunity to attract developers with their lower environmental standards and costs. This can lead to a chilling effect for the implementation of environmental protection policies. Strong regional governance can limit this effect by ensuring that nearby cities implement similar policies and play by the same environmental rules.
Regional governments can handle problems at scales beyond the city level. If a major city like Beijing forces factories within its city limits to close because the factories produce too much air pollution, these factories don’t necessarily shut down forever. They may move to nearby cities with more lax air pollution policies. In cases like this, the net pollution produced in an area will not decrease; it moves to other areas. By tackling problems at the regional level, the Chinese government can make meaningful strides towards addressing larger goals.
Regional economic planning encourages the clustering of talent in ways that build the greatest economic good for an entire region rather than one area. When industrial clusters grow in a city, the cost of growth for companies decreases as the supply of trained workers and the infrastructure necessary for that industry to thrive increases. This theory has been used to explain the development of Silicon Valley and other major innovation hubs. By developing distinct roles for cities within a region and decreasing intra-regional competition for industries, Chinese regions can develop these specialized regions necessary to compete in the global marketplace.
Challenges to Regional Integration
There is growing evidence which indicates Chinese leadership understands the importance of regional governance. President Xi is a strong supporter of the Jing-Jin-Ji regional area (Beijing, Tianjin, and the surrounding Hebei region). Regional authorities in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta also show that Chinese leaders are thinking regionally.
Though regional plans and regional governments are popping up across China, the authority of these organizations is still unclear. There is little evidence to suggest that these regional plans and regional governments possess the carrots and the sticks necessary to work effectively.
Regional plans are designed so that everyone in a region is better off for participating; however, these plans often require concessions from local governments. A city may benefit from improved air quality and interconnected transportation due to region-wide planning and policies; this same city may also be required to limit its recruitment of desirable industries so that other cities within the same region can develop economies of agglomeration. For many local governments, the incentives (i.e. carrots) for participating in these regional plans just aren’t great enough. Local officials may balk at policies that limit their cities’ growth potential despite the potential environmental and quality-of-life benefits of regional planning.
Perhaps more importantly, regional governments have few methods to punish cities and leaders who are unwilling to follow regional plans. If city officials refuse to follow regional plans, regional plans and the benefits that come with them will quickly fall apart. Without the tools necessary to keep cities in line, even the best regional plans will have very limited success.
Urbanization in China has brought about massive challenges that leaders across all levels of government will have to work together to resolve. Regional governments can play an important role in balancing conflicting goals between local governments. However, China will have to take major steps to empower these regional governments.
First, China needs to formally include regional governments in its governmental structure. Second, it must provide these regional governments with the authority to keep cities participating in regional plans.
Though the decentralization from central to local governments has spurred economic growth, cities aren’t capable of tackling large issues like environmental protection on their own. With the emergence of regional plans across China, the Chinese government has shown that it recognizes the importance of solving problems on a regional level. It remains an open question whether these regional governments possess the carrots and sticks necessary to implement these regional plans.