Monthly Archives: April 2012

Shenzhen Surging: Yabao Hi-Tech Park by 10 Design

Shenzhen, China’s experimental Special Economic Zone, is often derided for its lack of history and culture. This is in no small part due to the fact that the city is essentially a boomtown that is more or less just over 30 years old. Yet making up for this drawback is the fact that the city has some of the most interesting and innovative new architecture being built in the country.

I was recently informed of a design for a compelling new project that fits the bill for Shenzhen’s growing stock of interesting buildings. The Yabao Hi-Tech Park is a new development by the Shenzhen-based Galaxy Group and designed by the architecture firm 10 Design.

10 Design is relatively new firm based in Hong Kong, started by former employees of the global corporate giant RMJM. Founded less than 2 years ago, 10 Design is an upstart successfully challenging other multinational firms for commissions in the Mainland China market. With the Yabao Hi-Tech Park, 10 Design looks to establish itself as a serious player in the global architecture sphere.

In the designer’s words, the project “is an examination of the relationship between a pristine rural landscape and the advancing forces of a rapidly growing city.” Just over a million square meters in gross floor area, the park features 18 high-rise towers ranging from 100 – 300 meters tall, a 5-star hotel, and 3 residential towers.

The main building, a 300 meter tower flows out of an adjacent stream, twisting up  towards the sky. The 220 meter tower to the right of the main building melds with the retail podium and pulls itself along the freeway edge, creating a bold and iconic public image for the development.

The towers reflect the forward-looking nature of the developer by utilizing high-tech facade systems, including a series of balconies that pull off from the facades to allow vegetation to grow up the sides of the buildings. Interesting enough, included in the vegetated facades is an algae system that neutralizes air pollution 24 hours a day.

The project will be realized soon, as construction broke ground in October of last year. Upon completion, Yabao Hi-Tech Park will be an interesting new addition to the urban fabric of Shenzhen and will solidify 10 Design as a competitive international architecture firm.

Building a Greener Capital

Prosper Center, Beijing’s First LEED Gold Certified Building

The following is a guest post by Daniel Garst, a Beijing-based American writer. This article originally appeared in the March 24, 2011 China Daily Metro edition.

Nothing concentrates the mind of economic planners quite like political instability in key overseas energy suppliers.  China’s new Five Year Plan therefore not only mandates further reductions in the energy used in generating economic output, but also sets, for the first time, overall consumption goals.

Making buildings here more energy efficient will be one key element in achieving these goals.  A January 7, 2011 National Geographic News story states that the building sector absorbs 30% of China’s energy, a threefold increase since 1980.

Beijing has recently made notable progress in reducing energy waste in this area.  A thirty percent wholesale subsidy program encourages the purchase of efficient light bulbs, while local authorities have aggressively pushed a coal-to-electricity project in hutong neighborhoods.

This program both lowers sulfur emissions and energy use, as the electric heaters are more efficient and have adjustable thermostats; some models even have thermostats pre-programmed to use less electricity during peak day hours and store it up at night.  Rooftop solar water heaters are also now a common sight in Beijing’s hutongs.

Moreover, a Ministry of Construction crackdown has raised the compliance rate with the construction code calling for new Beijing buildings to use 65% less energy than their 1980s predecessors to over 90%.

However, even with this success, Li Bingren, chief economist at the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, notes in a September 21, 2010 China Daily story that heating energy consumption in buildings here will still substantially exceed those in the west.

Fortunately, lots of room still exists for further efficiency gains.  For example, heat for most residential buildings is still supplied by coal-fired boilers pumping hot water into radiators, so dwellers cannot lower or turn off the heat when it warms up or they’re out of the house.

An October 2010 University of Nottingham China Policy Institute paper on energy consumption in Chinese buildings states that 7% of the heat here is wasted when people open their windows because they have no way of controlling it themselves.

As incomes continue rising in the capital, Beijingers will demand larger flats with more lighting and electrical gadgets.  This makes it imperative for new buildings to allow residents—China’s 2008 Energy Conservation Law mandates that they be charged according to the amount of heat used—to control interior temperatures.

Subsidies could also be given to residents adopting thermal technology products that automatically allocate heat to rooms with different temperature demands.

Lastly, Beijing can be much more aggressive in retrofitting not just siheyuans, but other residential units as well.  The National Geographic News article cited earlier notes that Harbin has spent 1.1 million RMB to improve wall insulation and roofing in 2 million square meters of residential buildings.

Many high-rise commercial buildings also waste energy.  The University of Nottingham paper notes that while such structures take up just 4% of the floor space of Chinese construction, they account for 22% of the building sector’s energy use, thanks to poor design, especially badly insulated windows.

Unfortunately, as a leading Tsinghua University Professor quoted in an April 3, 2006 story on the Science Ministry headquarters, the granddaddy of Beijing’s “green” office buildings, puts it, “local governments just want fancy post-modern designs you can brag about.”

But the newly completed Parkview Green building on the Dongdaqiao Lu, which sports a slanting environmental shield resembling a giant greenhouse, shows that such structures can be very green.  In 2010, it was the first Chinese building to win the prestigious MIPIM Asia “Green Building” award.  And just down the Guanghua Lu stands the Prosper Center, Beijing’s first LEED Gold certified building awarded by the U.S. Green Building Council.

While both these buildings were expensive build and are costly to lease, Beijing’s first U.S. Natural Resources Defense Council certified green building, the Science Ministry headquarters, demonstrates that green construction can be less expensive in the short- as well long-run.  According to the Christian Science Monitor article on this structure, by avoiding the use of expensive materials, like marble, it cost $700 per square meter to build vs. the $850-1000 per square meter for other government buildings.

Of course Beijing’s construction industry still lacks a green material supply chain and expertise.  However, these things will develop as more of these buildings are constructed.  And since most factories have already been moved from the capital, Beijing will have to go green in building to do its part in helping China conserve energy.

1.3 Billion: A Demographic Reminder

Every now and again, I like to take a step back and refocus on China demographics to bring to light the sheer scale of the country in terms of population and economic growth. I do this because there are many commentators who still question the whole China urbanization program, scratching their heads while myopically looking at the same handful of so-called ‘ghost cities’ (many of which are actually mere districts of much larger municipalities).

The above chart from Statista spells out the current demographic/economic situation in China very clearly. China has more than 1.3 billion people. To put it into perspective, imagine the U.S. with about 1 billion added inhabitants, now imagine trying to manage an economy with that many people growing at about 9%-10% per year while keeping unemployment down to around 4%. As one can see, this is not a simple task as the inflation rate shot up about 6% since 2009.

Rising inflation is one huge issue currently facing China policy makers. Another one, albeit less pressing at the moment, is the slowing rate of population growth. While the controversial one-child policy instituted over 30 years ago was a success from a macro policy perspective, the unforeseen social issues resulting from the policy (low number of females to males, the burden of being an only child in a family oriented society, etc…) foreshadows economic consequences 10-20 years down the line when there are not enough young workers to replace and take care of a gigantic aging population.

And from my own personal encounters, though the one-child policy eased up significantly in recent years, most aspiring young middle-class Chinese living in urban areas opt to wait to have children and when they do, limit themselves to one (even if they are no longer constrained by the one-child policy).  This has to do with several factors, including the pressure to move up the social ladder by buying a house and car, the cost of a child’s education, and the cost of taking care of two sets of aging parents.

In the meantime though, my conservative prediction is that China has about 5-10 years left of strong economic growth. The per capita GDP is still remarkably low, mostly due to the hundreds of millions still living in rural areas. The potential to earn much higher wages in urban areas (where salaries are raising rapidly)  ensures that there is a steady of influx of people into cities.